Conversion Table

To Convert From

To

Do This

Parts per million (ppm)

Milligrams per liter (mg/l)

ppm = mg/l

Parts per million

Percent

Multiply ppm x 0.0001

Percent (%)

Parts per million

Multiply percent x 10,000

Gallons per minute (gpm)

Liters per minute (lpm)

Multiply gpm x 3.78

Liters per minute

Gallons per minute

Multiply lpm x 0.2642

Cubic feet (cu ft)

Gallons

Multiply cubic feet x 7.481

Gallons

Cubic feet

Multiply gallons x 0.1337

Fahrenheit

Centigrade

(Fahrenheit -32) x 5/9


Volumetric Flow Rates - Schedule 80 PVC Pipe

PVC Schedule 80 Nominal Size

@ 1.5 ft/sec

@ 3.0 ft/sec

@ 5.0 ft/sec

1/4 inch

0.33 gpm

0.67 gpm

1.12 gpm

3/8 inch

0.66 gpm

1.31 gpm

2.19

1/2 inch

1.09 gpm

2.19 gpm

3.65 gpm

3/4 inch

2.02 gpm

4.04 gpm

6.74 gpm

1 inch

3.36 gpm

6.73 gpm

11.21

The flow velocity (V) is dependent upon the geometry of the conduit through which the fluid flows and is related to the volumetric flow as shown in the following formula where Q represents the volumetric flow as cubic feet per second and A represents the cross-sectional area of the conduit in square feet to yield flow velocity in feet per second.
V =Q/A




Ion Exchange Regeneration

Resin Type

Regenerate With

Other Conditions

Cation

5 lbs Hydrochloric Acid per cubic foot of resin

Rinse to pH 6.5 with high purity water

Anion

15 lbs Sodium Hydroxide per cubic foot of resin

100 degrees Fahrenheit. Rinse to pH 7.5

Softener

6 lbs Sodium Chloride per cubic foot of resin

Rinse free of brine solution